Examining a body in a forensic case
ultimate goal- make a positive identification
if possible deterimine cause of death and manner of death
Big 4- sex. race, age, and stature

better to have a skeleton because a corpse skin can be deceptive. Bloated facial tissues swell making it hard to make an identification

Determining gender
If the genitals are removed the shapes of the bones offer the most reliable information.
A small skull suggests either a child or a woman
A smooth skull forhead suggests a woman while a eye brow ridge suggests the skull of a man
A woman's skull has sharp edges where the eye sockets are set beneath the forhead
Men have a bumpy occipital bone

Teeth help to offer information in age, gender, and identification
If the third molars have erupted it's almost cetain that the person was 18 years or older
match preexisting dental x- rays with the corpse's dental work to identify

help in determining gender and age

Negroid:curvy skull, denser bone, evolve to promote rapid air exchnage and cooling in hot climater( nasal dam)
Caucasoid: flat skull, evolve to keep cold European air from flowing too rapidly into the lungs.

Three types of skulls- Negroid, Caucasoid, Mongoloid

Cranial Vault
seven bones- frontal bone, parietal bones, temporal bones, sphenoid, occipital bone

People's height and stature can change but the proportions remain the same